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Spa towns in Romania

Spa towns in Romania
The term spa is associated with water treatment which is also known as balneotherapy. Spa towns or spa resorts (including hot springs  resorts) typically offer various health treatments. The belief in the curative powers of mineral waters goes back to prehistoric times. Such practices have been popular worldwide, but are especially widespread in Europe and Japan. Day spas are also quite popular, and offer various personal care treatments.
A spa town (also called a bathing-place or simply a spa) is a town situated around a mineral spa (a developed mineral spring). Patrons resorted to spas to "take the waters" for their purported health benefits. The word comes from the Belgian town Spa. In continental Europe a spa was known as a ville d'eau (town of water). The term spa is used for towns or resorts offering hydrotherapy which can include cold water or mineral water treatments and hot thermal baths.
Spa towns in Romania :
1. Amara is a town in Ialomita county, Romania. It is located in Baragan on the shores of Amara Lake, a few kilometers north of the county capital, Slobozia. Amara was elevated to town status in 2004.
2.Bazna (German: Baaßen; Translyvanian Saxon dialect: Baußen; Hungarian: Bázna) is a commune located in Sibiu County, Romania. Bazna commune is composed of three villages: Bazna; Boian (Bonnesdorf; Bonnesdref; Alsóbajom); and Velt (Wölz; Welz; Velc or Völc), the name of which is probably derived from the Hungarian völgy, meaning "valley".Documented from 1302, the commune has a Gothic church, also incorporating Romanesque elements from the 13th century, was erected by local Transylvanian Saxons. The enclosure walls date from the 15th and 16th centuries.
3.Baile Felix (Hungarian: Félixfürdo) is a thermal spa resort near the commune of Sânmartin in Bihor County, Transylvania, Romania. They are among the best known and most quality thermal spas in the country. Baile Felix is also at a close distance to Oradea, a major city in western Romania.
Baile Felix and 1 Mai are two thermal spa resorts located in a hilly area with beach and oak tree woods, 8 km south of the municipality of Oradea (seat of Bihor County) and 22 km south-east of Bors (border checkpoint to Hungary).
Summers are not excessively hot and winters are mild, with moderate precipitation (650 mm annually).
In the thermal waters of the Peta river and lake, having a constant temperature of 30-31°C, live the snail Melanopsis parreyssi (tertiary relict) and the fish Scardinus racovitzae as well as a rare species of subtropical water lily - Nymphaea lotus thermalis - tertiary relict, a natural monument.
The resorts host many mineral springs with thermal (20-48°C), sulphuric, calcic, sodic, rich in bicarbonate waters known since the beginning of the millennium. The soothing effect of the waters on articular and muscular pain and on various rheumatic neuralgias accounts for the fame of cures in the resort for the treatment of inflammatory rheumatic diseases (rheumatic polyarthritis, rheumatoid spondylitis, conditions after acute articular rheumatism), degenerative and articular rheumatic diseases, central and peripheral neurological disorders, gynecological diseases, post-traumatic conditions, endocrine disorders.
The facilities of the two resorts offer treatment of rheumatism and neurological and gynecological diseases. The modern medical base has at its disposal various facilities for procedures involving electrotherapy, hydrotherapy, aerosols, massage, paraffin packing and other water treatments.
The Felix and 1 Mai spa are also ideal for relaxation and visitors can take advantage of the following:

* the pool with artificial waves in 1 Mai (the oldest in the country)
* the thermal water swimming resorts : "Apolo" (since 1900) in Felix and "Venus" in 1 Mai

The ones that have a special interest in the local culture can also look into:

* the chapel in Haieu, a medieval church from the XIV th century, with baroque and romantic elements
* the Sanifarm baroque building, formerly "Saint Vincent" monastery (XVIII century)
* the churches in Rontau (15th century) and Haieu (1906)
* the wooden churches in Baile Felix
4. Baile Govora (or just Govora) is a Romanian spa town in Vâlcea County, about 20 km (12.43 mi) south-west of Râmnicu Vâlcea and west of the Olt river. Notable features of the town (beside its mineral springs, recommended for a variety of ailments) include the Govora abbey (built in the 15th century and consolidated by Matei Basarab and later by Constantin Brâncoveanu) and the nearby "Dintr-un lemn" Monastery (16th or 17th century; the legend of its origin was recorded by Paul of Aleppo).

Govora abbey was the site where Matei Basarab introduced the first printing press in Wallachia - where the first written code of laws in Romanian was published, Pravila de la Govora, in 1640).
5. Baile Herculane (Latin: Aqua Herculis, German: Herkulesbad, Hungarian: Herkulesfürdo) is a town in Romanian Banat, in Caras-Severin County, situated in the valley of the Cerna River, between the Mehedinti Mountains to the east and the Cerna Mountains to the west, elevation 168 meters. Its current population is approximately 6,000.
The spa town  of Baile Herculane has a long history of human habitation. Numerous archaeological discoveries show that the area has been inhabited since the Paleolithic era. The Pestera Hotilor (Cave of the Thieves), contains multiple levels, including one from the Mousterian period, one from the Mesolithic period (late Epigravettian), and several from the later Neolithic periods.

Legend has it that the weary Hercules stopped in the valley to bathe and rest. During the 165 years of Roman domination of Dacia, the Herculaneum Spa was known all over the Empire. Unearthed stone carvings show that visiting Roman aristocrats turned the town into a Roman leisure center. Six statues of Hercules from the time have been discovered. A bronze replica of one of them, molded in 1874, stands as a landmark in the town center.
In modern times, the spa town has been visited for its natural healing properties: hot springs with sulfur, chlorine, sodium, calcium, magnesium and other minerals, as well as negatively ionized air. Before World War II, when the first modern hotel was built (i.e. H Cerna, 1930) it remained a popular destination with Western Europeans, who lent the town a refined elegance. During the Communist rule, mass tourism facilities were built, such as the 8-12 levels tall concrete hotels Roman, Hercules A, Hercules B, Afrodita, Minerva, Diana, UGSR, etc. which dominate the skyline. It was visited by all publics, but especially popular with employees and retirees, who would spend their state-allotted vacation vouchers there, hoping to improve their health. Today, they share the town with a younger crowd, attracted by its beautiful mountain setting. An incredible array of new private-owned pensions and hotels appeared after 1989, along the Cerna/Tiena river banks, spread from the beautiful romantic train station to t   he end of the hydroelectrical dam. Although very beautiful also, some of the Austro-Hungarian era buildings are derelict for the time being, including many of the baths, because of post-communism property related issues.
6.Baile Tusnad (Hungarian: Tusnádfürdo, Hungarian pronunciation: ['tu?na?dfyrdø?]) is a town in Harghita, Romania. It lies in the Székely Land, an ethno-cultural region in eastern Transylvania.

With a population of 1,728, it is the smallest town in Romania by population. It is located at an altitude of 650 metres in the southern reaches of the Ciuc depression, between the Harghita and Bodoc mountains, in the valley of the Olt, and is to this day an important spa town. The village of Carpitus/Kárpitus is administratively part of the town.
The town and the surrounding area are famous for their spas and mineral waters received from seven springs. Nearby is the Lake Sfânta Ana  (Szent Anna-tó), a famous volcanic crater lake, the only one of its kind in Romania. It is not only an important touristic site but is of cultural importance in the Székely Land, too.[citation needed]

The water has long been used for bathing by the Székely people. The most probable date for the founding of the bathing station is 1842. It was an alleged miraculous healing of the son of a shepherd from his rashes that first attracted widespread attention to the therapeutic properties of local mineral waters, after which a company was founded to develop the springs in 1845. The bathing station was destroyed in the skirmishes of 1849, but Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph, on visiting the town in 1852, ordered the reconstruction of the baths. The rapid development of the town began after 1860. The Mikes-source was named in honour of count Benedek Mikes, chairman of the spa committee, who appointed a chemist at his own expense to analyse the water of the spring bearing his name. This marked the start of the scientific evaluation and utilisation of local mineral waters. The Stefánia Medical Center was opened in 1890 and remained the treatment center of the spa until 1975. Lake Csukás (now: Ciucas) was artificially   created in 1900, and the big hotels of the town were built in the 1970's.

The settlement was historically part of the Székely Land area of Transylvania and belonged to Csíkszék district until the administrative reform of Transylvania in 1876, when it fell within Csík County in the Kingdom of Hungary. After the Treaty of Trianon of 1920, it became part of Romania and fell within Ciuc County during the interwar period. In 1940, the second Vienna Award granted the Northern Transylvania to Hungary and it was held by Hungary until 1944. After Soviet occupation, the Romanian administration returned and the town became officially part of Romania in 1947. Between 1952 and 1960, the commune fell within the Magyar Autonomous Region, between 1960 and 1968 the Mures-Magyar Autonomous Region. In 1968, the province was abolished, and since then, the commune, as a town, has been part of Harghita County.
The population of the town is 1,728, it has a Székely Hungarian majority with 1,615 (93.46%) Hungarians (2002 census). There are also small communities of ethnic Romanians (6.14%) and Roma (0.40%).
Therapeutic indications

* Cardiovascular disease (post heart attack recovery, circulatory problems);
* Valvular disease of the heart muscle, hypertension, circulatory problems);
* Nervous system disorders (neurasthenia, neurovegetative dystonia, secondary asthenic conditions, physical and intellectual fatigue);
* Digestive problems (stomach diseases, functional bowel disorders, chronic gastritis, enterocolitis, biliary dyskinesia);
* Endocrine disorders (hyperthyroidism mild adrenal insufficiency, Basedow's disease);
Types of treatments

* Spa with CO2, mofettes, galvanic baths, massage;
* Paraffin, herbal baths, massage;
* Magneto-diaflux, ionization medical gymnastics;
* Internal treatment with mineral water, manual reflex massage;
* Magnet therapy, soil treatment;
Elements of natural treatment

* Carbonated mineral water, chlorine, sodium, bicarbonate;
* Moffettes;
* Subalpine tonic-stimulant bioclimate;
Composition of mineral water sources

* Stanescu Spring: output of 405 l / h, T 7 ° C, pH 6.2; naturally carbonated, with bicarbonate, sodium, calcium, magnesium;
* Apor Spring: output of 7200 l / h, T 7 ° C, pH 5.3; hypotonic, naturally carbonated, ferruginous, with chlorine, bicarbonate, sodium, calcium;
* Mikes Spring: free output, T 14 ° C, pH 5.6; hypotonic, naturally carbonated, mildly ferruginous, with chlorine, bicarbonate, sodium.
7. Borsec (Hungarian: Borszék, Hungarian pronunciation: [borse?k]) is a town in Harghita County, Romania. It lies in the Székely Land, an ethno-cultural region in eastern Transylvania. The town and the surrounding areas are well known for their spas and mineral waters.
It was historically part of the Székely Land area of Transylvania. Administratively, it belonged to Csíkszék until the administrative reform of Transylvania in 1876, when it fell within the Csík County in the Kingdom of Hungary. After the Treaty of Trianon of 1920, it became part of Romania and fell within Ciuc County during the interwar period. In 1940, the second Vienna Award granted the Northern Transylvania  to Hungary and the settlement was held by Hungary until 1944. After Soviet occupation, the Romanian administration returned and it became officially part of Romania in 1947. Between 1952 and 1960, the town fell within the Magyar Autonomous Region, between 1960 and 1968 the Mures-Magyar Autonomous Region.
Borsec, a resort chiefly known for its mineral water and favourable climate, is situated in the intracarpatic depression of the same name, at an altitude of 900 m.
Its name is derived from Hungarian "borvizszék" meaning "Seat of Mineral Water", the seats being traditional administrative units in the Szekely Land.
Borsec owes its fame to its mineral waters, known for their curing properties. Natural cures (the healing properties of the microclimate, surrounding air, soil and water) and physiotherapeutic  properties are reputedly able to improve nutrition and heal a host of metabolic disorders. Borsec is a favorable place for rest and recreation: it is a real paradise for those who enjoy excursions (known destinations include Poiana Zânelor, the ice cave, the bears' cave, Izvorul Stravechi, Cetatea Bufnitelor), those who like winter sports (on Faget and Fagetel for beginners and those more advanced) as well as those who like to fish, who can try their luck in the waters of Bistricioara or the Bicaz lake, which are near the resort.

One famous visitor to Borsec was Moldavian writer Vasile Alecsandri, who wrote the following in 1845: "at Borsec they all are brothers, if not in Jesus then in mineral water [...] one of the most important merits of Borsec is that it gives people human feelings!"

Nearby locations include the monasteries of Moldavia (Neamt, Secu, Varatec, Agapia, Durau, Sihastria), the Lázár Castle , Lacul Rosu, Cheile Bicazului, Lake Bicaz, the Durau resort, the Praid salt mine, Sovata, and the ceramics centre of Corund.
According to the 2002 census, the town's population is 2,864, of whom 2,240 (78.21%) are ethnic Hungarians, 21.19% are ethnic Romanians and 0.6% others.
"Borsec, Queen of Mineral Waters" (since 1806) is bottled there and exported to nations such as the United States.
8. Buzias (German: (Bad) Busiasch, Hungarian: Buziás or Buziasfürdö) is a town in Timis County, Romania. As of 2004, it had a population of 7,738, or 7,714 according to the 2002 census.
The town was first mentioned in 1321 in a document of Charles I of Hungary. It was declared a city in 1956.
Buzias is an old health spa, the first establishments being built in 1819. In 1839 was declared a spa. The mineral waters of Buzias are used in the treatment of a wide range of diseases. They are also bottled for common use.
The park of Buzias, with a surface of over 20 ha, is a dendrological park with many rare species of trees, the most important being the plane (Platanus). The architectural symbolic element of the spa is the covered colonnade of the park built in Turkish-Byzantine style, unique to Romania. The only two other similar promenades in Europe are found in Karlovy Vary and Baden-Baden.
9. Calimanesti-Caciulata, often known just as Calimanesti, is a town in Vâlcea County, southern Romania. It is situated in the historical region of Oltenia and the northern part of the county, on the traditional route connecting the region to Transylvania, and at the southern end of the Olt River valley crossing the Southern Carpathians.

The location of several thermal springs, Calimanesti-Caciulata is known as a spa town. During the 20th century, many hotels and treatment facilities were built in Caciulata, a northern area of the town which is close to Cozia Monastery. The Monastery was build by Mircea The Old in 1388 which is also the day of the city Calimanesti and Ramnicu Valcea (just south on DN7). The area around the town is full of fresh water springs and spa waters that are not in use. The old town was a bit smaller, the island you see on river Olt was bigger and the road was on what is now the river bed. In 1918 it was the major point of invasion in Transylvania. The town is build along DN7 (Drum-Road,National-National) National Road 7. The second most used road in Romania, used by Romanians to travel up to Transylvania and recently often used to go to Hungary, Austria and many other EU nations.
10. Covasna (Hungarian: Kovászna ; German: Kowasna) is a town in Covasna county, Transylvania, Romania, at an altitude of 550–600 m.

Known as the "town of 1,000 mineral springs," Covasna is famous for its mineral waters. Each spring has a different mixture of minerals, chiefly carbon dioxide, sulfur, and ammonia. Its name is derived from the Slavic word Cvaz, meaning sour, referring to the taste of its mineral waters.
Chiurus (Hungarian: Csomakorös) is a village administratively part of the town. The village has a population of 451 and has an absolute Székely Hungarian majority.
According to the 2002 Census, Covasna has 11,369 inhabitants. It has a Hungarian majority: 7,549 or 66.4%. 3,672 (32.3%) Romanians also live in the town.
* 1567 - First mentioned in a document.
* 1952 - Covasna became a town.
The famous Hungarian explorer and linguist Sándor Korösi Csoma was in Chiurus/Csomakorös in 1784. Korösi is widely seen as the founder of Tibetology, he was the compiler and author of the first Tibetan-English dictionary and grammar book. He died in Darjeeling, India in 1842.

A statue in his honour was erected in the centre of the village in 1972 and there is an exhibition in the cultural centre.
11. Eforie ( historical names (for Eforie Sud): Baile Movila, Carmen-Sylva, Vasile Roaita) is a town and a holiday resort on the Black Sea shore, in Constanta County, Romania. It is located about 14 kilometers south of Constanta. Techirghiol Lake lies nearby.
Eforie Sud, the south part of the city, was founded by the aristocrat Ion Movila in 1899, when he erected a hotel named Baile Movila (Movila Spa). In 1928, the spa was renamed Carmen-Sylva, after the pen name of Queen Elisabeth of Romania. In 1950, after the establishment of the Communist regime, the name of the city was changed again to Vasile Roaita to honor a railways worker shot dead during the Grivita Strike of 1933. In 1962, the city was renamed yet again to Eforie Sud.

In 1966, the city of Eforie was created by merging Eforie Sud with the northern resort Eforie Nord. Many other hotels were built here over the years, most of them during the communist rule.
"Carmen Sylva" High School, the city's only high school (located in Eforie Sud, which also has a general school, while another general school is located in Eforie Nord) is one of the highest ranked high schools in the county
12. Geoagiu (Hungarian: Algyógy) is a town in Hunedoara County, Romania, located on the Mures river at an altitude of 217 meters over the sea level. The river with the same name (Geoagiu) flows in this place into the Mures. The town has a population of about 6,500.
The first settlements in the area can be found in the time of the Dacians, in the 1st century BC, as shown by archeological discoveries. After the Roman conquest, the Romans the fort of Germinsana in the 2nd century, however, it kept the original Dacian name.

The name of Germisana meant "hot water" (germi = "heat", sara = "waterfall") and it showed that the Dacians already knew of the thermal springs of the area. Another opinion that the name came from the Hungarian name of the river Gyógy which means "curative". But more probably, the name is coming from the Hungarian word dió (nut as fruit) with the suffix -d, so, after the first documentary citation, "villa Gyog" from 1291 appeared as Dyod és Dyog (1397), Aldyogh (1407), Algyogh (1412), Aldyod (1439), Alsodyod alio nomine Alsoffalwa (around 1444).

The first documentary citation of Geoagiu (it was written as "villa Gyog") was in the year 1291, when it was used as a land in the vicinity of Bintinti (now the village Aurel Vlaicu).
13.Mangalia ( Greek: Callatis, Panglicara, other historical names: Pangalia, Tomisovara) is a city and a port on the Romanian coast of the Black Sea in the south-east of Constanta County.

The following resorts are administered by the Mangalia municipality:

* Cap Aurora
* Jupiter
* Neptun
* Olimp
* Saturn
* Venus
Cap Aurora is a summer resort on the Romanian Black Sea coast, located between Jupiter and Venus.
Jupiter is a summer resort on the Romanian seacoast, on the Black Sea, 4 km (2.5 miles) north of Mangalia.
Neptun is a summer resort on the Romanian seacoast, on the Black Sea, 6 km north of Mangalia. It is part of a string of such resorts, Olimp, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn.
The place is notable for hosting the summer residence of the president, the Nufarul.
Olimp is a summer resort on the Romanian seacoast, on the Black Sea, 7 km (4.3 miles) north of Mangalia.
Saturn is a summer resort on the Romanian seacoast, on the Black Sea, 1 km (0.6 miles) north of Mangalia.
Venus is a summer resort on the Romanian seacoast, on the Black Sea, 3 km (1.8 miles) north of Mangalia.
A Greek colony named Callatis (Kallatis) was founded in 6th century BC by the city of Heraclea Pontica. Its first silver coinage was minted approximately 350 BC. In 72 BC, Callatis was conquered by the Roman general Lucullus and was assigned to the Roman province of Moesia Inferior. Throughout the 2nd century AD, the city built defensive fortifications and the minting of coinage under the Roman emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla  continued. Callatis suffered multiple invasions in the third century AD but recovered in the 4th century AD to retain its status as an important trade hub and port city.

Since the 9th century it was known by the Turks as Pangalia, by the Romanians as Tomisovara and by the Greeks as Panglicara and it was one of the most important ports on the west coast of the Black Sea. Mangalia (former Callatis) is the oldest city, continuously inhabited, on the present territory of Romania.
Mangalia is positioned at 43°49' latitude and 28°35' longitude, with an approximate elevation of 10 meters, 44 km south of the municipality of Constanta, on the same latitude as the French resort of Nice. Mangalia is one of the southernmost resorts on the Romanian coast of the Black Sea.

Mangalia is characterized by a moderate maritime climate (annual average temperature 11°C - one of the highest in Romania) with hot summers (July average over 21°C) and mild winters (January average 1°C), Mangalia being the country's second place, after Baile Herculane, with positive average temperatures in wintertime. Spring comes early but is cool and autumn is long and warm. In summer, cloudiness is reduced (about 25 sunny days in a month) and the duration of sunshine is of 10–12 hours a day. Annual precipitation is low (about 400 mm).

The sea breeze is stronger in summer. The natural cure factors are the water of the Black Sea, which is chlorided, sulphated, sodic, magnesian, hypotonic (mineralization 15.5g), the sulphurous, chlorided, bicarbonated, sodic, calcic, mesothermal (21-28°C) mineral waters of the springs in the northern part of the city, in the area of the beach between Saturn and Venus, the sulphurous peat mud, rich in minerals, which is extracted from the peat bog north of the city (expected to last another 250 years) and the marine climate, rich in saline aerosols and solar radiation that have a bracing effect on the organism.

The resort has a large, fine-sand beach developed for purposes of aeroheliotherapy and wave therapy, as well as high seawalls with a specific microclimate where one may benefit from inhalations of saline aerosols having therapeutic effects.
The Scythian tomb discovered in 1959 where archaeologists unearthed fragments of a papyrus in Greek, the first document of this kind in Romania; the incineration  tombs (the necropolis of the Callatis citadel, dating back to the 4th-2nd centuries BC); the ruins of the Callatis citadel (6th century BC); the Turkish Mangalia Mosque (16th century); the Archaeology Museum which shelters a rich collection of amphorae and sculptures from the Hellenistic epoch, fragments of stone sarcophagi, etc.

The city has been well known in recent years as the place where one of the largest summer festivals in Romania takes place: Callatis Festival.
14. Moneasa (Menyháza in Hungarian) is a commune in Arad County, Romania, is situated at the foot of Codru-Moma Mountains. Its administrative surface stretches over 6824 hectares and it is formed of two villages: Moneasa - the commune centre situated 102 km from the city of Arad and Ranusa.
According to the last census, the population of the commune counts 1056 inhabitants, out of which 97,7% are Romanians, 1,7% are Hungarians and 0,6% are of other or undeclared nationalities.
Traces of inhabitance on this area dating back to the paleolithic and neolithic have been found in the caverns called "Hoanca" and "Izoi".

The first documentary record of Moneasa dates back to 1597, while Ranusa was first mentioned in 1556.
Moneasa is one of the county's communes that have a high economic potential. The exploitation of black and red marble, the springs of mineral waters with bicarbonate - calcic, sodic, oligomineral and semi-thermal, valorizated already in 1866, lumbering and conversion of timber, as well as the exploitation of other touristic resources are the maintainers of the local economy.
The touristic potential of the commune is an exceptional one. Its primary touristic place is the Moneasa health resort. It is working all year round and it is recommended for treatment of different diseases, mainly rheumatic ones, as well as digestive and gynaecological troubles.

The cavern named "Valea Morii", a natural reservation of national interest, along with the one called "Liliecilor", the water fall "Boroaia", the "Momuta" peak and the ruins of the blast furnace are the top sights of the commune.
15.Slanic  is one of the 14 towns of Prahova County, Romania, historically and currently known as a salt extraction center, as well as a spa town, with salt lakes. Two villages, Grosani and Prajani, are administered by the town.
As its name (salt in Slavonic) suggests, most of Slanic's history and economy are directly related to the presence of relatively large quantities of salt underground, and even in open air.

Slanic is also the name of the creek flowing through the town, tributary of Varbilau River, which in turns is a tributary of Teleajen River.

Although technically incorrect, the compounded name Slanic Prahova is also being used especially in other parts of Romania. This alternative name was probably generated to help discern between Slanic and another Romanian town, Slanic Moldova.
The town is famous for its salt lakes (or Bai): The Shepherd's (Baia Baciului), The Green (Baia Verde) and The Red (Baia Rosie) Lakes, as well as for the Old (Salina Veche) and New (Salina Noua) Salt Mines. While salt is still being extracted from the New Salt Mine, the Old Mine is open to the public now, being used as a spa, amusement center and museum of the salt mining industry. International contests of Indoor Model Aircraft Flying (Modellism) take place annually in the upper level (Mina Mihai) of the Old Mine.

Other worthwhile tourist objectives, all within easy reach for any untrained hiker, are a local water spring named The Cold Fountain (Fântâna Rece), the TV Relay Tower (Releu) beyond The Fir Forest (Padurea de Brazi), Beacon's Hill (Dealul cu Semn), The Salt Mountain (Muntele de Sare) with the legendary Bride's Cave (Grota Miresei), now partially collapsed due to rain erosion, as well as The Green Rock (Piatra Verde) and The Colt's Small Hill (Delusorul Mânzului).
16. Sovata (Hungarian: Szováta) is a town in Mures County, Transylvania, central Romania.
It formed part of the Székely Land region of the historical Transylvania province. The first data about Sovata are from 1578. By 1583 it already was a village.

Until 1918, the village belonged to the Maros-Torda County of the Kingdom of Hungary. After the Treaty of Trianon of 1920, it became part of Romania.

Due to its warm water and salty lakes it became increasingly popular during the next centuries. It gained the status of town in 1952.
According to the 2002 census the town had a population of 11,614 of which 10,465 (90.10%) were Hungarians and 909 (7.82%) Romanians.
Sovata is situated between the Corund River and the valley of the Târnava Mica River. It can be reached from Târgu-Mures, Miercurea-Ciuc and Odorheiu Secuiesc on the 13A main road and from Reghin on a connection road. Coordinates: 46°35'37.59"N / 25°4'31.96"E

3 villages are administratively part of the town:

* Capeti / Kopács
* Iliesi / Illyésmezo
* Sacadat / Szakadát

* In 2004; the village of Sarateni broke away to form an independent commune.
The geological events in 1875 gave birth to the Bear Lake, which is unique in Europe, its water being helio-thermal and salty, with well-known therapeutic effects (for chronic gynecological symptoms, severe rheumatic pains, peripheral nervous system and post-accidental motor diseases).

There are four more salty lakes: Nut Lake, Black Lake, Red Lake and Green Lake. In the interwar period, Sovata became one of the most fashionable spas in the country, visited several times even by the Romanian Royal Family.
17.Techirghiol (historical name: Tekirgöl) is a town in Constanta County, Romania.
The name is derived from the Turkish Tekirgöl which means "the lake of Tekir". According to a legend, a blind and crippled old man named Tekir and his old donkey reached the shore of the lake by mistake. Trying to pull his stubborn animal out of the mud, Tekir was miraculously healed so he could see and walk normally again. Since then the lake has become famous for its healing properties.

Tekir and his donkey are featured in a statue located in the center of the town.

The name also means (in Turkish) "Striped Lake" (tekir - striped, and göl - lake). This is because of the salinity of the lake; when the wind blows, white salt stripes appear on the surface of the lake.
Town is in the south east extremity of Romania (Constanta County), situated on the north west shore of Lake Techirghiol (11.6 km2), elevation 15-20 m, 18 km south of the municipality of Constanta and very close to the Black Sea (3 km).

In Techirghiol the winters are mild and the summers are warm, dominant being the clear skies (the sun shines for more than 2,400 hours every year).
Techirghiol was first marked on the country's map in 1893 but developed steadily after 1912, establishing itself as a spa town.

In 1891, Hagi Pandele opened its doors, the first hotel and cold baths establishment in the town. In 1900 the extraction of therapeutic mud initiated and this led to the construction of many bathing establishments and hotels.

After World War I, in 1920, Techirghiol started to become a very popular tourist attraction due to its famous therapeutic mud.
The sapropelic mud from the Techirghiol Lake is the jewel of the resort.In 1924, at the Universal Exposition from Paris, the Techirghiol mud received the golden medal. Alphons Saligny was the first to study the therapeutic use of the mud; after this the Romanian Institute of Balneology approved it and during the 1930s the studies realized by Alphons Saligny and the Institute were the base for solid scientific proof regarding the therapeutic actions of the sapropelic mud of Techirghiol and the methodology of those treatments.

The sapropelic mud of Techirghiol is used warm for different kind of procedures:

* Wraps
* Cataplasm
* Water mixed, for baths in bathtubs
* Massage

The use of therapeutic mud is also recommended for:

* Better skin elasticity,
* Hydration for cell strengthening and for dryness prevention.
* Skin healing ( in cases of psoriasis and eczema)
* A better state of well-being and relaxation
* Improvement of pain from anterior accidents, as well as those from rheumatism and muscular immobility.
* General detoxification of the organism can easily be achieved after a series of general massages with mud, or after a cure of wrappings in the comfort of your own home, or in a specialized saloon, or on the seashore.
Places of interest

* Techirghiol Lake
* Saint Mary Monastery
* Techirghiol Balneotherapy Center
18.Sinaia ( population: 14,636) is a town and a mountain resort in Romania. The town was named after Sinaia Monastery, around which it was built; the monastery in turn is named after the Biblical Mount Sinai. King Carol I of Romania built his summer home, Peles Castle, near the town.

Sinaia is about 60 km northwest of Ploiesti and 50 km south of Brasov, in a mountainous area on the Prahova River valley, just east of the Bucegi Mountains. The altitude varies between 767 m and 860 m.

The city is a popular destination for hiking and winter sports, especially downhill skiing. Among the tourist landmarks, the most important are Peles Castle, Pelisor Castle, Sinaia Monastery, Sinaia Casino, Sinaia train station, and the Franz Joseph and Saint Anne Cliffs. Sinaia was also the summer residence of the Romanian composer George Enescu, who stayed at the Luminis villa.
The climate  is a characteristic of low-altitude mountain passes. Annual average temperature: 8°C; Average temperature in June: 15°C; Average temperature in January: -4°C.

Summers are bracing and very rainy in the beginning of the season. Winters are relatively mild, with heavy snow. Average annual rainfall is 900 mm. The maximum monthly registered rainfall was in June (173 mm). The minimum rainfall was recorded in September (55 mm) and February (40 mm).

A uniform layer of snow is deposited usually in November and it melts from March to April, sometimes at the beginning of May. The thickness of the snow layer varies between 20 centimeters and 3 meters in higher elevations.

In recent years, Sinaia has felt the effects of global climate change – change that has meant shorter summers, with temperatures frequently over 30°C, a slight reduction in the length of spring and autumn, and relatively longer winters (end of October – beginning of May), colder winters with entire weeks dominated by frost ( -19°C to -25°C) and numerous blizzards.
Proponents claim that Sinaia has a refreshing and stimulating climate that is beneficial to the human body. There are also some mineral springs in Câinelui Valley that have sulphur-ferric mineral water and contain other soluble minerals.
In the town of Sinaia and its surroundings restrictions are in place regarding cutting down or picking up flora. The felling of trees is not allowed. It is forbidden to pick up any alpine plants. Severe punishment may be in store for those who gather these plants: the Mountain Peony (Rhododendron Kotsky), Edelweiss (Leontopodium alpinum), and the Yellow Gentiana (Gentiana lutea). Tourist camping is only authorized in designated places, following necessary and compulsory protection standards.

The mountainous area in which Sinaia is located is in the Bucegi Natural Park region. The Park covers a total area of 326.63 square kilometres, of which 58.05 square kilometres are under strict protection and shelter natural monuments. The Bucegi Natural Preserve area includes all the abrupt areas of the mountains Vârful cu Dor, Furnica, and Piatra Arsa. The mountainous area is continuously patrolled by mountain rescue patrols as well as by members of the Mountain Police.

At the entrance to the Cumpatu district, one can find the "Sinaia alder-tree grove" botanical reservation placed under the protection of the Romanian Academy and the Bucharest Biology Institute. In the same district, there is also another ecological research station under the patronage of UNESCO – Jacques-Yves Cousteau, belonging to the University of Bucharest, which also includes a museum of Bucegi Mountains fauna in a laboratory for nature protection.

About the Author

As officer in Romanian Army I had travel through Romania : in the Carpathian Mountains , near river Danube , in Delta of Danube , to the Black Sea and to all spa towns . My own experience is rich and I could relate a lot of things about beautiful and wonderful spa towns in Romania , even about all travel characteristics of this country .

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