Philippine Insurrection

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PHILIPPINE INSURRECTION BRING BACK PHILIPPINE MORO FIGHTING BOLO VG CONDITION
$69.95
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VIII 8th Corps Badge Medal for Philippine Insurrection Service dated 1899 1900
$135.00
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VIII 8th Corps Badge Medal for Philippine Insurrection Service dated 1899 IDed
$175.00
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OLD Spanish American War Philippine Insurrection 8th Corps Lapel Button
$50.00
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Original 33rd US Volunteer Infantry Reunion Button Philippine Insurrection
$40.00
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Arnt Philippine Insurrection medal 1899 numbered wrap broach
$80.00
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Philippine Insurrection and World War Medal Group to John Bartunek CAC died 1919
$385.00
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Spanish American War Philippine Insurrection WWI Traceable Medal Group
$615.00
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Spanish American War Philippine Insurrection Mexican Border WWI Medal Group 1LT
$725.00
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2 numbered Army Philippine Insurrection medals w ribbon bar 1899 85114
$99.99
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Spanish American War Philippine Insurrection Large Photo of Artillery Soldier
$20.00
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Spanish American War Philippine Insurrection Large Photo of Infantry Soldier
$20.00
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st90 Philippine Insurrection US Army Flag Streamer Cavite 1899 1900
$39.00
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Philippine Insurrection Black Combat Unit 112 B
$99.00
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116 US Army Streamer Philippine Insurrection Iloilo 1899
$39.00
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1899 Army Philippine Insurrection Medal with RIBBON
$12.99
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VINTAGE 1899 Army Philippine Insurrection Medal NUMBERED
$189.99
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65 US Army Streamer San Isidro Philippine Insurrection
$39.00
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BOOK with ROSTERS MINNESOTA in SPANISH AMERICAN WAR PHILIPPINE INSURRECTION
$195.00
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Philippine Insurrection Medal 1899
$12.00
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1899 Philippine Insurrection Campaign Medal Wrapped Numbered 24385 Traceble
$155.99
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Philippine Insurrection 1899 Aguinaldo US Army
$10.00
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ORIGINAL SPANISH AMERICAN WAR PHILIPPINE INSURRECTION MEDAL RIBBON SEWN BACK
$34.99
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Numbered US Army Campaign Medal for the 1899 Philippine Insurrection
$243.00
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st86 Philippine Insurrection US Army Flag Streamer ILOILO 1899
$39.00
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st88 Philippine Insurrection US Army Flag Streamer Zapote River 1899
$39.00
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st89 Philippine Insurrection US Army Flag Streamer Mindanao 1902 1905
$39.00
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st91 Philippine Insurrection US Army Flag Streamer Laguna De Bay 1899
$39.00
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st92 Philippine Insurrection US Army Flag Streamer Jolo 1905 1906 1913
$39.00
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st93 Philippine Insurrection US Army Flag Streamer Malolos 1899
$25.00
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st94 Philippine Insurrection US Army Flag Streamer Malolos 1899
$39.00
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st95 Philippine Insurrection US Army Flag Streamer Tarlac 1899
$39.00
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st96 Philippine Insurrection US Army Flag Streamer San Fabian 1899
$39.00
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st97 Philippine Insurrection US Army Flag Streamer Manila 1899
$39.00
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1899 US Army Philippine Insurrection Medal Issued to Pvt Chas A Wehrlen NYNG
$253.00
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Photo PC Spanish American War Philippine Insurrection US Soldiers
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Philippine Insurrection

Philippine Insurrection

The Antecedents of The Sea Peoples

The Sea Peoples is a nineteenth century name for the maritime marauders,who challenged the might of Egypt on three occasions.Their history is poorly documented and the age estimates for the era are often based on tenuous ceramic chronologies. M Vlazaki [2011] reported the discovery of rudimentary axes and other lithic tools,which are deemed to be more than 130Ka old,near the community of Plakios on southern Crete.If this preliminary archaeological research is substantiated,hominids made a ca 65km open sea voyage to Crete from an unknown point of origin much earlier than was previously anticipated.The third metatoral of a small individual at the Callao cave on northern Luzon in the Philippines is at least 66.7 +/- 1.0Ka old [A Mijares,2010],which indicates that seafarers had reached Luzon by that date.Pre-47Ka,cal,Homo sapiens had crossed 80-120km of open sea from the Indonesian archipelago to Australia and/or New Guinea. Whether this marine colonization was planned or was fortuitous is a moot point.The water craft,which were used for these early maritime ventures,may have been primitive rafts.The Sea Peoples were recipients of ancient seafaring traditions.

There is a long history of piracy and seabourne attacks on the coastal settlements along the Mediterranean seaboard and islands.The residents of Polichini on the Aegean island of Lemos constructed strong,defensive fortifications ca 4200 BCE,cal [B Cuncliffe, 2002].The activities of freebooters ranged from hit and run raids on sea ports or unescorted vessels at sea to full scale naval engagements and harbour  town sieges.The compostion of the marine raiders varied temporally.Ephemeral alliances of convenience were forged to sack vunerable,opulent sea ports.They generally looted their victims and sailed away in search of new targets.Piracy was a commercial enterprise at a number of North African ports.When powerful fleets [eg:the Minoans] protected the sealanes,the incidence of maritime attacks was relatively low.Whenever there were political power vacuums,periods of instability and/or economic stress,the opportunity for easy plunder attracted marauders from distant lands.

The cold,dry era from ca 2200-1900 BCE,cal,disrupted commodity exchange routes and social structures in NW Europe.Pollen studies recorded dramatic cooling in the Gulf of Alaska during a period of glacial advance ca 1500 BCE [G Mc Bean,2005].Adverse climatic conditions probably motivated some northern Europeans to sail or trek south in search of more diverse natural resources.Light long boats that could transport up to 80 people are depicted on rock art at Shagerrak,Sweden;on stone slabs [ca 1300 BCE] in south Sweden and on a Greek Homeric vase.A horned helmut with knobs on the end ,which is similar to the head ware of one element of the Sea peoples,was excavated at Sjaelland Island,Denmark [P Jordan,2004].A HLA-A genetic study by P Deitkiter revealed that migrants from Poland and Scandinavia journeyed to Macedonia and Greece [no date].The Sea Peoples may have included people with Scandinavian ancestry among their numbers.

Egyptian inscriptions describe a victory [ca 1278? BCE] by Ramses II over a marine force in the Nile Delta:"They came in warships from the midst of the Sea.The king destroyed the warriors of the Great Green Sea" [Aegean?].The overall compositon of the enemies,who fought against Ramses II,varied from those,who later confronted Ramses III in the Nile Delta naval engagement.Syracuse on the Island of Sicily was plundered during a seabourne attack,which was probably conducted by a western version of the Sea Peoples as early as 1270? BCE.Subsequently the Egyptian-Hittite peace treaty and the presence of the Mycenaean navy contributed to an era of relative stability.After the death of Ramses II,Egypt entered a period of flux,which encouraged other rulers to pursue their expansionist aspirations and seafaring freebooters to seek oppurtunities to procure ill-gotten gains.The victory shield on the Temple of Merenptah at Thebes commemorates the triumph of Merenptah over Libyan invaders ca 1213 BCE +/- 10a.Libya's northern allies or mercenaries in this defeat included the Shardana,Lukka,Meshwah,Teresh, Ekwesh and Shekelesh.The latter  two are deemed to be Sea Peoples,who along with the Lukka probably transported the additional land forces to Libya.The Lukka from the mainland north of Rhodes had a long history of participating in piracy and they fought with the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh.The Ekwesh,who are only mentioned once in Egyptian records,were the most numerous of Libya's supporters.The Ekwesh were tall of stature,with wide bodies,fair hair, and blue eyes,which are not eastern Mediterranean features.Subsequent internal strife reduced Egypt's capacity to defend its sea routes,[F Braudal,2002].

The Minoan fleet controlled the sea lanes for more than 500 years.Their economy was trade dependent and acquisition of essential raw materials [eg:copper] was vital. Amural of a naval engagement on a wall at Thera [Santorini] indicates that Minoan sea power was challenges prior to the volcanic eruption. Ca 1450-1425? BCE most Minoan palaces ,except Knossous were danaged and there were no efforts to reconstruct them.Mycenaean warriors were well positioned to exploit any Minoan vunerability  and they gradually took over the Minoan trade routes in addition to forging new ones [eg: Italy and down the line contact with Iberia,Mycenaean pottery shards were recovered at Ischia Island].However the Mycenaeans did not have the maritime resources or the political stability to protect extensive trade net works for long periods.Rivalry between Mycenaean powers was a major source of  weakness and there was no central authority to coordinate military/naval warfare, [M Wood,2001].

Piracy accelerated,commodity exchange diminished and Mycenaean trade with the Near East ports gradually became negligible.As the supply of essential imports declined,many of the Mycenaean communities became economically unstable,which severely reduced their capacity to maintain an effective navy. With fewer merchant vessels on the high seas,the Sea Peoples concentrated on sacking coastal towns.The inhabits of these settlements were forced to upgrade their fortifications.Some Aegean Isles were pillaged pre 1250? BCE [M Popham,1994; Taylor,1983;A cotteral,1980].The lucrative cultural and commercial networks [Baltic amber began to be imported by the Mycenaeans ca 1550? BCE] between the Aegean Isles and the Nordic lands,which had commenced ca 1800 BCE started to wane [K Kristiansen,2006].By ca 1120? BCE the Mycenaean era had largely been terminated by a variety of misfortunes [earthquakes,Plagues,famine,and hostile attacks].

The Palace of Nestor was erected ca 1250? BCE in Pylos,which had an artifical harbour to provide access to the sea.However the residents failed to maintain their defensive walls.Pylos was destroyed by marine forces and abandoned ca 1200? BCE.The food stores were not disturbed,which can eliminate famine as the reason for the attack.The demise of Pylos has been attributed to the Sea Peoples,[C Shelmerdine,2008].A number of local sailors may have joined the Sea Peoples after their communities had been pillaged.Their numbers could have been further bolstered by recruits from the western Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic seaboards,who were attracted by the lure of booty.The Sea Peoples moved eastward to ravage ports along the shorelines of Cyprus and Rhodes.

In the Papyrus Harris [ca 1164? BCE;J Brested,Egyptian Records]Ramses III comments on the chaotic state of Egypt before his father assumed the throne:"Other times came afterwards in the empty years……a Syrian with them made himself prince.He set this entire land as a tributary before him".When the Sea Peoples ravaged Cyprus ca 1185? BCE,the Hittites lost their last source of vital copper.The gradual demise of the Hittites ca 1180? BCE was prompted by famine,plaque,earthquakes,internal strife and finally by the invasion of another military power.The above sequence of events provided the Sea Peoples with an opportunity to extend their range of activities,because their was no united force to prevent their incursions.These lawless elements had active support from a number of Mediterranean seaports.Correspondance between the leaders of Cyprus and Urgarit revealed that citizens in both populations were involved in piracy.Many Levant communities appear to have colluded with the Sea Peoples,because they were not destroyed [eg: Tyre,Sarepra,etc:G Markos,2008].

   Gibala-Tell Tweni was a prosperous, coastal community near the southern extremity of the Ugarit Kingdom. Fallen walls, burnt houses, bronze arrowheads and ceramic shards in cultural level 7a testify to its destruction by the "Sea Peoples". The pottery assemblage included Late Helladic IIb1 [ca 1210-1175 BCE], Late Cypriot IIc white slip II [ca1220-1990 BCE] And local late Helladic IIb1. Cunieform tablet KTU 1.78 in the burnt ruins of Ugarit recorded the January 12,1192 BCE eclipse of the sun. The maritime assault and devastation of Ugarit and Gibala post dates this solar event. Short lived organic samples and young tree branches from 8 key loci in Gibala layer 7a were AMS dated [D Kaniewski,2011].

  Three of these specimens yielded identical calibrated ages of 1186 BCE +/- 40a. This has been provisionally selected as the date for the destruction of Ugarit and Gibala by the "Sea Peoples".Their demise deprived the Hittites of two vital sources of supply and hastened the downfall of the inland kingdom.These age estimates closely correspond with the chronology in Ian Shaw's [2003] text "Ancient Eygpt".

Ramses III triumphed over the Peleset and Tjekkar on Syria's Hole Plain in the fifth year of his rule [ca 1180? BCE]. His enemies did not have war chariots,which were commonly used in the Levant [J Brested;Egyptian records].There is a possibility that the Tjekkar came from Anotalia.Ca 1177?BCE he was victorious over a loose federation of the Sea Peoples in the Nile Delta naval engagement.His foes included the Peleset,Tjekker,Denyen, Shekelesh,and Weshesh among others.They were a combination of land and sea forces [ibid].The enemy ships on the Medinet Habur battle scenes had identical fore and aft posts,with bird figure heads on the top.S Wachemann [2000] traced the design to the Danube corridor,which "might" infer that one component of the invaders came from the Black Sea [ibid].The origins of the Sea Peoples,who formed this alliance of convience to sack the riches of Egypt,has not been totally resolved,Many authors have addressed these enigmas and they will not be discussed here,with one exception.After their defeat in the Nile Dellta,the Peleset settled in the Levant,where they became known as the Philistines.

This may have been part of Ramses III's policy to minimize insurrection proximal to Egypt's borders.A Aja [2009] reported that the Aegean architectural traditions near Corinth,which may have had some origins in Anatolia,have numerous features in common,with those in Philistia,the Philistine homeland.This does not constitute definitive proof that the Peleset could have come from the region of Corinth with ancient roots in Anatolia,but it might merit a degree of consideration.The Egpytian victory may not have been as comprehensive as the Medinet Habur battle scenes imply [eg:Ramses II's propaganda for the Battle of Kadesh] and/or the engagement appreciably  weakened Egypt's capacity for future expansion.Ramses III's endeavours to extend his sphere of influence north of modern Palestine were thwarted.

Subsequently the Phoenicians,another maritime power,emerged along the Levant coastal ports to dominate commercial activity over a considerable portion of the Mediterranean Sea and beyond the Pillars of Melqart to the eastern shores of the Atlantic Ocean.

 

 

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